27. It has been fashionable of late to believe that Genesis, second chapter, along with others, was written by a different author from the one who wrote chapter first, and that they are contradictory accounts of creation. The proof is supposed to lie principally in the fact that "God" alone is mentioned in the first chapter, "the Lord God" (Jehovah God) in the second. It is not for us to wander far a field in textual and higher criticism. But it is useful to know that recent highly valuable investigations of the original state of the Hebrew text, by Mr. Harold Wiener, M. A., L.L. B., (a Jewish barrister-at-law, of Lincoln's Inn, London), seem to conclusively show that our "received text" is at fault, at this point.

28. While our New Testament translation rests upon the comparison, one with another, of many ancient Greek manuscripts, heretofore the translators of the Old Testament have contented themselves by the use, almost wholly, of what is known as the Massoretic text of the Hebrew Old Testament. Mr. Wiener brings other authorities to the front, as to the state of the original Hebrew, and shows, among other things, that the name of God did not always stand as it does in the Massoretic text. He holds that the scribes often made a mere sign for the name of "Jehovah," and then later scribes wrote the name in full.[5] The copying scribe of chapter one wrote "God;" of chapter two, "Lord God." Therefore the difference may be due not to different authors, but to different scribes. No Higher Critic has been able, as yet, to meet or refute Wiener's challenge of their theory; and his works are making a profound impression.

29. But, did Moses write the Pentateuch? Why not? If it be true that the antediluvians lived to the great age that the Bible asserts (sin having not, as yet, wrought its havoc in shortening the length of life), then the claim is easily sustained. Adam and Methuselah were contemporary 243 years, and thus Methuselah could, according to primitive custom, be well drilled in oral, traditional history by Adam, or Eve. Methuselah and Shem were contemporary during a full century; thus Shem could learn the story. Shem and Isaac were contemporary for about 48 years; thus Isaac learns the story. Isaac and Levi were contemporary for about 33 years; thus Levi learns it. The daughter of Levi, Jochebed, was both great-aunt and mother of Moses (Numbers 26:59); but long before Moses was born, indeed, before Isaac's time, writing had come into use. Moses could certainly have easily composed the Pentateuch, excepting the account of his own death, in Deuteronomy 34.

30. We return to the story in Genesis. We conclude that the first chapter of Genesis describes the original creation of "Adam,"--mankind. (We must bear in mind the fact that the word "Adam" is applied sometimes to mankind, and sometimes to the individual being who was husband of Eve). The second chapter describes the elaboration of the first Adam into two sexes. The second chapter nowhere uses the word "create," of Adam, but a totally different word,--"formed." Please look up this same word, "formed," in Isaiah 44:2, 24 and 49:5, and convince yourself that it is used there exclusively of all idea of creation. Then turn to Isaiah 43:1, 7; 45:18, and see how it is used of a process additional to creation. This is what St. Paul refers to, where he says, "Adam was first formed then Eve,"—1 Timothy 2:13. He is speaking of development, not of original creation. Adam and Eve (so far as their primal state is concerned) were created simultaneously; but Adam was "formed," elaborated, first.

31. After Adam was created, Genesis 1:31 tells us, "God saw everything that He had made, and, behold, it was very good." Therefore Adam was very good; but this condition did not last. Genesis 2:18 tells us that presently God says: "It is not good that the man [or "Adam"], should be alone." The "very good" state of humanity becomes "not good." What had wrought signs of this change? We are not told, but the following points should be weighed: (1) Adam was offered "freely" the tree of life (2:16), but did not eat of it (3:22); (2) was made keeper, as well as dresser of the Garden, (2:15), but Satan later enters it, (read paragraphs. 36, 37). (3) Had God simply meant by the words "not good" that one person alone was not a desirable thing, the Hebrew expression for "one alone" in Joshua 22:20, Isaiah 51:2, etc., would seem more appropriate. This expression means, "in-his-separation,"—and from whom was Adam "in separation" but from God?

32. Attention to some of these matters has been called by more than one theologian, only to be ignored by the generality of Bible expositors. For instance, William Law, a learned theologian and one of the most accomplished writers of his day, declares: "Adam had lost much of his first perfection before his Eve was taken out of him; which was done to prevent worse effects of his fall, and to prepare a means of his recovery when his fall should become total, as it afterwards was, upon eating of the earthly tree of the knowledge of good and evil. 'It is not good that man should be alone,' saith the Scripture. This shows that Adam had altered his first state, had brought some beginning of evil into it, and had made that not to be good, which God saw to be good, when He created him."

33. The late Dr. Alexander Whyte, of Edinburgh, in his book, Bible Characters, set forth some of the views of William Law, and also of an earlier writer, Jacob Behman, the great German philosopher (whose writings Wesley. in his days, required all his preachers to study). Whyte quotes Behman as teaching,—

"There must have been something of the nature of a stumble, if not an actual fall, in Adam while yet alone in Eden . . . Eve was created [he should say, "elaborated"] to 'help' Adam to recover himself, and to establish himself in Paradise, and in the favor, fellowship and service of his Maker."

34. As to Adam's need, God said, 'I will make a help meet for him." This word for "help" does not imply an inferior, but a superior help, in O. T. usage. It occurs 21 times in the O. T. Here it is used twice of Eve. In Isaiah 30:5, Ezekiel 12:14 and Daniel 11:34 of human help; but in every other use made of the word, it refers to Divine help, as, for instance, Psalm 121:2, "My help cometh from the Lord." Please notice, further, that the expression is not "helpmeet," or helpmate, as is often quoted. The word "meet" is a preposition, and Gesenius, the greatest authority as to the meaning of Hebrew words, defines this preposition as often implying, "As things which are before us, and in the sight of which we delight, are objects of our care and affections, hence Isaiah 49:16, 'Thy walls are before me,' they have a place in my care and affections." With this preposition "before," or "over against," is coupled the adverb "as,"—the whole meaning "as before him," (see margin).

35.  By the elaboration of Eve, and her separation from Adam, God intended the development of the social virtues, as an aid for Adam. Again William Law says, "Could anything be more punctually [pointedly] related in Scriptures than the gradual fall of Adam? Do you not see that he was first created with both natures [male and female] in him? Is it not expressly told you, that Eve was not taken out of him, till such a time as it was not good for him to be as he then was?”



[5] This was because the name “Jehovah” is held by Jews as too sacred for utterance.

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